Before you begin

The ethical standards expected of authors, reviewers, and editors are described in the JNRD Publication Ethics.

Publication in this journal is totally free (no publication fees). For more information please see Editorial Policies, Publication Fee



Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Failure to follow the submission instructions may delay the review process.

  1. Use of wordprocessing software
  2. Article structure for Research Articles
  3. Artwork
  4. References
  5. Peer-review
  6. Submission preparation checklist
  7. After acceptance

All the manuscripts must be submitted in English. The manuscript pages must be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. All the text must be uploaded as MS-Word© documents. It will be also required to authors to send a Cover Letter that includes a brief overview of the manuscript, author presentation, the assurance that the manuscript has not been previously published whole or in part and that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and it is also necessary for the authors to indicate the Financial Support of their research.

Receipt of each article is acknowledged by e-mail to the contacting author upon receipt.  Preliminary articles will not be considered for publication. The manuscript is read and examined for conformity to the Guide for Authors by the editor. Failure to meet the criteria outlined may result in return of the manuscript for corrections before evaluation.



It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. Do not embed “graphically designed” equations or tables, but prepare these using the wordprocessor’s facility. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the “spell-check” and “grammar-check” functions of your wordprocessor.



Subdivision – numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, …), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to “the text”. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Essential title page information:

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
  • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a “Present address” (or “Permanent address”) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Changes to authorship

Modifications to authorship are not allowed, this policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts.

Research highlights

Research highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use ‘Research highlights’ in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters per bullet point including spaces).


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words and must be structured into separate sections: Background, the context and purpose of the study; Results, the main findings; Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications.

An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

In case of review articles, the abstract should be submitted as one section.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, which must not be part of the title of the paper, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


It should be brief and limited to the definition of the problem, the aims and purposes of the research and its relation with other studies in the field. Also the working hypothesis must be clearly stated.

Materials and Methods

It should include relevant details on the experimental design and techniques so that the experiments can be repeated.


Results should be clearly presented. Tables and figures should only be included if required to fully understand the data.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.

Acknowledgments and Financial support

Indicate Acknowledgements and Financial support in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder’s requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


For original articles (research, review articles) at least 75% of the references must be from the Science Citation Index Expanded and at the same time from the last decade. Also the DOI number must be included at the end of each reference.

Math formulae

Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


The JNRD only accepts the abbreviations of the International System of Units (SI). For more detailed information please see here

Table footnotes

Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.



Electronic artwork

General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork
  • Save text in illustrations as “graphics” or enclose the font
  • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version
  • Submit each figure as a separate file.


Images and Photographs:

Digitalized images and photographs must be sent using a JPG or TIFF format only, with a minimum of 150 dpi.

Special care on the maximum definition of the photographs is required.

Please do not:

  • Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Drawings and graphs:

For line art, the following software can be used: Excel, Power Point, Adobe Illustrator, Freehand 8, Canvas 6, and Postcript Level 2.


We accept digitized videos using mp4 format, avi, quicktime and mov.

Video data

We will accept video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file’s content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a maximum size of 10 MB. Please supply ‘stills’ with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.



Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association (APA). You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, copies of which may be ordered online.  Please find below information on the usage of this style.

Citations in Text: 

In-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses.

After the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week (Kajembe & Mutabazi, 2013).
Kajembe and Mutabazi (2013) argued that, the intensities, types and levels of many natural resource use-conflicts in Tanzania are poorly known and documented.

*Note the use of “&” when both author and year are inside parentheses, while “and” is used when only the year is in parentheses.

For multiple citations within parentheses, alphabetize the studies as they would appear in the reference list and separate them by semicolons.

The conflicts experienced in Kilosa, Mvomero, Kiteto and Kilindi (Benjaminsen, Maganga & Abdallah, 2009; King, 2013; Massoi, 2015) are cases in point, which substantiate the aforementioned conflict consequences.

Please find below a chart indicating the correct usage of ‘et al.’.

Number of authors
First text citation (either parenthetical or narrative)
Subsequent text citations (all)
One or two : Palmer & Roy, 2008
Three: Sharp, Aarons, & Gittens, 2007
More than three: Sharp et al., 2007

Reference list indications:

List authors with full family name and initial of given name, with space between initials in given names and full stop after given name initial
Multiple authors separated by a comma
Use “&” before last author with preceding comma
Use “(Ed.)” or “(Eds.)” to denote editors
List only up to 7 authors. If more than 7 authors, list first 6 authors, then ellipses followed by the final author’s name
Article title in sentence case, but initial caps for first word after colon
Journal titles are written in full
For editions, use “(2nd ed.)”, “(3rd ed.)”, and so forth [follow existing journal style for superscripting of ordinal indicators]

Benjaminsen, T. A., Maganga F. P., & Abdallah, J. M. (2009). The Kilosa killings: Political ecology of a farmer–herder conflict in Tanzania. Development and Change, 40(3), 423–445.


Supplementary data

The journal accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.



All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Preliminary articles will not be considered for publication. The manuscript is read and examined for conformity to the Author Guidelines by the editor. Failure to meet the criteria outlined may result in return of the manuscript for correction before evaluation.

Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. Referees are matched to the paper according to their expertise in the subject area represented by each manuscript. Our database is continuously updated.

This journal operates a single blind review process, where the author does not know who the reviewers are. The peer-review process is applied to all submissions.

The evaluation of the manuscripts is made based on the following aspects:

  • Originality of the work
  • Relevance to scientific knowledge in Natural Resources and its sustainable use to reach the Development
  • Follows appropriate ethical guidelines, especially as concerns plagiarism
  • Background: Theoretical background adequate. Hypothesis and objectives and clear contribution to Natural Resources and Development.
  • Updated and quality references (75% or more references from the last decade)
  • Methodology: Materials and methods appropriate and adequately described. Sound experimental design.
  • Results: Data concise and sufficient. Statistics analysis when appropriate. Efficiency measurements. Figures clear and correct, only essential data should be included in figures. Elimination of figures, graphs and tables which add little or could be replaced by a few sentences or a statement of numerical values is recommended.
  • Discussion: In-depth discussion, correct interpretation.
  • Formal Aspects: Correct language, Title and summary sufficiently informative. References properly cited. Adherence to usual and consistent nomenclature.

Language correction is not part of the peer review process, but referees are encouraged to suggest corrections of language and style to the manuscript. In the final round, the Editor will check matters of linguistic and stylistic correctness, and may suggest or apply corrections at this point.

The editor considers the feedback and makes the final decision:

  1. accepted with no further revision
  2. accepted after minor revision (i.e., article can be accepted if the author makes the requested minor revisions)
  3. accepted only after major revisions (i.e., article can be accepted after major revisions have been made)
  4. inappropriate for the journal
  5. rejected

Submitting a revised version:  The preferred method of indicating changes is Microsoft Word’s “Track Changes” feature. Video tutorial HERE

  • Authors: all the changes made in the manuscript must appear in the document using the M.S.-word tool “track changes”. The response to the previous report should be as specific as possible, and directly address each of the points raised by the editor and/or referee.
  • Reviewers: all the comments in the document must appear in the document using the M.S.-word tool “new comments” and please without your name. The review process is single blind.

The review process is done as quickly as possible. Referees may request more than one revision of a manuscript. Number of revisions depends upon the need for number of changes needed in the article as per the instructions from the editor/reviewers to ensure quality of the article before getting them published. Should the referees’ reports contradict one another or a report is delayed, a further expert opinion may be sought. If the paper is accepted after major revisions, it must be send again for review to the same evaluators. In case of difficulties, regarding the willingness of the original reviewer(s) to re-review the manuscript and (or) their availability, it may be possible to send the paper to new reviewers.

Manuscripts  should go through no more than two rounds of revision to avoid lengthy peer review. In some cases, according to the recommendations from editors and reviewers, a third round of peer review may be initiated, although this should be assessed case by case.

A final decision to accept or reject the manuscript will be sent to the author along with any recommendations made by the referees. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final.



It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal’s Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One Author designated as corresponding Author:

  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded

  • Cover letter
  • Keywords
  • All figure captions
  • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)

Further considerations

  • Manuscript has been “spellchecked” and “grammar-checked”
  • References are in the correct format for this journal
  • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the internet)

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission’s compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The manuscript has not been previously published whole or in part
  • The manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word 2003 (.doc), Word 2007 (.docx) or RTF (.rtf) document file format.
  • At least 75% of the cited articles are from the last decade
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • Where available DOIs for the references they are provided at the end of each citation.
  • The text follows to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in Guidelines to submissions
  • I have read carefully and followed Guidelines to submissions



Final digital test (PDF & HTML layout)

Corresponding authors are requested to do the layout proof before the article is available for public. They must check the HTML versions. Our staff does everything possible to get your article published as soon as possible.  Please send us all your corrections within 72 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. After receiving the authors final approval for the HTML, the PDF version is generated, according author’s corrections. The full text in HTML is immediately released.



For all enquiries, please contact the JNRD Editorial Office at