DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v5i0.01

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Naah John-Baptist Saabado Ngmaadaba* , Johannes Hamhaber

Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Cologne, Germany.

*Correponding author: jeanlebaptist@yahoo.co.uk [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

The dynamics of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology dissemination and utilization has taken center stage in recent years on a global scale, aiming to partly address prevailing rampant energy poverty situations particularly in developing countries. This paper evaluates a flagship electrification project called Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP). We purposively sampled 250 solar users in 65 villages across 6 districts in the Upper West region which has the country’s lowest level of electricity access and possibly the highest proportion of abject poverty among its inhabitants compared to the rest of the country. Based on the survey, it can be said that the overall impact assessment of the GEDAP-sponsored off-grid solar PV systems on the quality of life of the local beneficiaries was found to be positively marginal. Among all livelihood assets considered, social capital was markedly enhanced by the provision of modern energy services via isolated solar PV systems. Bottlenecks were identified, including limited system wattage capacity, slight dysfunction of some balance of components, higher interest rates, low technical know-how and inadequate monitoring, all of which are negatively affecting the sustainability of the project. Our findings also indicate that satisfaction derived from solar PV electricity supply among local solar customers differed for varied reasons as follows: moderately satisfied (43%), satisfied (52%), and dissatisfied (5%).  For a decisive enhancement of rural livelihoods, we strongly recommend up-scaling system wattage capacity and coverage to build up new or improve upon existing livelihood assets through diversification of the income sources of the local inhabitants.

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.12

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Arshad Ali *, Asad Mahmood, Shahnila Gul
National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Correponding author: aliarshad08@yahoo.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

This research looks at the effectiveness of microinsurance services during and after a disaster and at disaster management as an effective tool for community betterment. A detailed review has been done on available research and case studies. Unfortunately, underdeveloped countries suffer due to a lack of finances during and after a disaster. Developed countries are usually not ready for any disaster at government and public levels. A disaster affected country will also be keen for financial help from donor agencies and other counties. Microinsurance would be very helpful during any disaster to overcome the financial needs at the community level. Microinsurance is a practice that can share the financial liability with the affected population during a disaster. There is no trend in Pakistan for community based microinsurance for certain reasons, although there are very good examples available for review in the region. These include microinsurance services based on community microinsurance models such as SEWA (Gujarat), Weather-Index-based insurance (Ethiopia) and Crop insurance against typhoons (Philippine). These have played a vital role in disaster risk transfer during and after disasters. This study will identify the implementation and outcome of microinsurance in Pakistan during a disaster and understand how much beneficial microinsurance would be for the betterment and recovery of affective community on an urgent basis.[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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[2] A. Parul et al, “TATA-AIG’s Innovative Distribution Model–Extending Micro-insurance to Rural India” TATA-AIG, India, pp.108- 112, 2009.

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.11

Photo credits: Professor Pua Bar (Kutiel)

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]
Shira Dickler a* , Meidad Kissinger a

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

*Correponding author: dickler@post.bgu.ac.il  [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”][/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

The prevailing global livestock industry relies heavily on natural capital and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). In recent years, nations have begun to take more of an active role in measuring their resource inputs and GHG outputs for various products. However, up until now, most nations have been recording data for production, focusing on processes within their geographical boundaries. Some recent studies have suggested the need to also embrace a consumption-based approach. It follows that in an increasingly globalized interconnected world, to be able to generate a sustainable food policy, a full systems approach should be embraced. The case of Israeli meat consumption presents an interesting opportunity for analysis, as the country does not have sufficient resources or the climatic conditions needed to produce enough food to support its population. Therefore, Israel, like a growing number of other countries that are dependent on external resources, relies on imports to meet demand, displacing the environmental impact of meat consumption to other countries. This research utilizes a multi-regional consumption perspective, aiming to measure the carbon and land footprints demanded by Israeli cattle and chicken meat consumption, following both domestic production and imports of inputs and products. The results of this research show that the “virtual land” required for producing meat for consumption in Israel is equivalent to 62% of the geographical area of the country. Moreover, almost 80% of meat consumption is provided by locally produced chicken products but the ecological impact of this source is inconsequential compared to the beef supply chain; beef imports comprise only 13% of meat consumption in Israel but are responsible for 71% of the carbon footprint and 83% of the land footprint. The sources of Israel’s meat supply are currently excluded from environmental impact assessments of Israeli processes. However, they constitute a significant fraction of the system’s natural capital usage, so they must be included in a comprehensive assessment of Israel’s consumption habits.  Only then can policy be created for a sustainable food system, and inter-regional sustainability be achieved.
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[73]     Williams, A. G.; Audsley, E.; Sandard, D. L. Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities. Defra Research Project ISO205; DEFRA and Cranfield University: Bedford, UK. 2006.

[74]    Williams, A. G.; Pell, E.; Webb, J.; Tribe, E.; Evans, D.; Moorhouse, E.; Watkiss, P. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Food Commodities Procured for UK Consumption through a Diversity of Supply Chains. DEFRA Project FO0103. 2007.

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.10

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Ajoy Kumar Mandal a*, Atanu Jana b, Abhijit Datta b, Priyangshu M. Sarma a, Banwari Lal a , Jayati Datta b

a The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India.

b Bengal Engineering and Science University, Sibpur, PO: Botanic Garden, Dist: Howrah, West Bengal, India.

* Corresponding author: akmandal@teri.res.in [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”] ; ajoy_mandal@hotmail.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”][/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste) carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008), by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India (GoI).[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

[1] L Yustle et al., 2000. “Characterization of bacterial strains able to grow on high molecular mass residues from crude oil processing”. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, vol. 32, pp. 69–75, 2000.

[2] Xueqing Zhu et al., “Guidelines for the bioremediation of marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands”, U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, USA, 2001.

[3] Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India, Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules Amendment 2000.

[4] M. Vidali, “Bioremediation – An Overview”, Pure Applied Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1163 – 1172, ©2001, IUPAC, 2001.

[5] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Soil At South Santhal CTF, ONGC, Mehsana Asset, India”. In Proceedings of 2007 Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Paper no. 109571, 2007.

[6] Nitu Sood & Banwari Lal, “Isolation of a novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons in acidic conditions”, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 90, pp. 1728–1736, 2009.

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[13] P U M Raghavan and M. Vivekanandan, “Bioremediation of oil-spilled sites through seeding of naturally adapted Pseudomonas putida”, International Biodeterioration& Biodegradation, vol. 44, pp. 29 – 32, 1999.

[14] Sanjeet Mishra et al., “Evaluation of Inoculum Addition To Stimulate In Situ Bioremediation of Oily-Sludge-Contaminated Soil”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp.1675–1681, 2001.

[15] Wuxing Liu et al., “Prepared bed bioremediation of oily sludge in an oil field in northern China”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, pp. 479-484, 2009.

[16] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., , “Bioremediation: A Sustainable Eco-friendly Solution for Environmental Pollution in Oil Industries”, Journal of Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-23, 2011.

[17] Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Government of India. “Status of groundwater quality in India, Part – II”. Groundwater Quality Series: GWQS/10/2007-08, April 2008.

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[21] Anil K. Gupta, and Sreeja S Nair, “Ecosystem Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction”, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi, pp. 202, 2012.

[22] K S Parikh, “India development report” published in IGIDR 1999-2000, Oxford University press, 1999.

[23] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation: An Environment Friendly Sustainable Biotechnological Solution for Remediation Of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste”, ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2(Special Issue ICESR 2012), pp. 1 – 12, 2012.

[24] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Large Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste at Indian Oil Refineries: Case Studies”, International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. L – 114 – 128, 2012.

[25] D Bhattacharya et al., “Evaluation of genetic diversity among Pseudomonas citronellolis strains isolated from oily sludge contaminated sites”, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 1431–1441, March, 2003.

[26] Priyangshu Manab Sarma, et al., “Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons”, Can. J. Microbiol., vol. 50, pp.405–414, 2004.

[27] P M Sarma et al., “Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by a newly discovered enteric bacterium, Leclercia adecarboxylata”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 3163-3166, May, 2004.

[28] P M Sarma et al., “Degradation of pyrene by an enteric bacterium, Leclerciaa decarboxylata PS4040”, Biodegradation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp.59-69, Feb., 2010.

[29] B. Lal and S. Khanna, “Degradation of crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Alcaligenes odorans”, Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp.355-362, Oct., 1996.

[30] B. Lal and S.Khanna, “Mineralization of [14C] octacosane by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus”. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1225-1231, 1996.

[31] S. Mishra et al., “In situ bioremediation potential of an oily sludge degrading bacterial consortium”, Current Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp.328-335, Nov. 2001.

[32] Sanjeet Mishra et al., “Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm”, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 235, no. 2, pp. 323–331, June, 2004.

[33] G S Prasad et al., “Candida digboiensis sp. nov.a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oil field”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 55, PP.633–638, 2005.

[34] N Sood et al., “Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6”, Environment Science Pollution Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp.603-10, 2009.

[35] S Krishnan et al., “Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two desulphurizing bacterial strains, Mycobacterium phlei SM120-1 and Mycobacterium phlei GTIS10”. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 483-489, May, 2006.

[36] S Krishnan et al., “Biodesulpharization of fuels; Breaking the barriers through Microbial Biotechnology”. All India Biotech Association News Letter, no. 8, pp.41-44, 2001.

[37] Meeta Lavania et al., “Biodegradation of asphalt by Garciaella petrolearia TERIG02 for viscosity reduction of heavy oil” Biodegradation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 15-24, 2012.

[38] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Remediation of Oily Sludge at Various Installations of ONGC: A Biotechnological Approach”, In Proceedings of Petrotech 2007: 7th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 753, 2007.

[39] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oily sludge at Panipat refinery, IOCL, India: A case study”, In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Hazardous Waste Management,Chania, Crete, Greece, 2008, Paper no. B2.4, 2008.

[40] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of tank bottom waste oily sludge at CPF Gandhar, India : a case study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2009: 8th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, 2009, Paper no. 657, 2009.

[41] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil at CTF Kalol, ONGC, Ahmedabad Asset, India”. In Proceedings of SECON 09:National Conference on Energy Resources of North East India, Guwahati, 2009, Paper no. S09.HSE.0004, 2009.

[42] Priyangshyu Manab Sarma et al., “Remediation of petroleum wastes and reclaimation of waste lands : A biotechnological approach”, In Proceedings of Brownfield Asia 2006 : International conference on remediation and management of contaminated land : Focus on Asia, Kualalampur, Malaysia, pp. 185 – 198, 2006.

[43] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Outstanding Catalyst Performance of PdAuNi Nanoparticles for the Anodic Reaction in an Alkaline Direct Ethanol (with Anion-Exchange Membrane) Fuel Cell”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 116, no. 49, pp. 25677–25688, 2012.

[44] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Significant role of surface activation on Pd enriched Pt nano catalysts in promoting the electrode kinetics of ethanol oxidation: Temperature effect, product analysis & theoretical computations”, Int. J Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 7789 – 7800, 2013.

[45] J. Datta, et al., “The Beneficial Role of The Co-metals Pd and Au in the Carbon Supported PtPdAu Catalyst Towards Promoting Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics in Alkaline Fuel Cells: Temperature Effect and Reaction Mechanism”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 115, no. 31, pp. 15324-15334, 2011.

[46] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Land At Dikom Site At Duliajan, Assam, India: A Field Case Study”, In Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008, Paper no. IPTC 12396, 2008.

[47] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Drill Muds At Bhavnagar Shorebase, India : A Field Case Study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2010: 9th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 20100515, 2010. [/stag_toggle]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.09

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Nabsiah Abdul Wahid a*, Zainal Ariffin Ahmad b, Rozita Arshad c

Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
b  College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia.
[stag_icon icon=”envelope” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”] drzaaba2001@yahoo.com
c  College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
[stag_icon icon=”envelope” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”] roz@uum.edu.my

*Corresponding author: nabsiah@hotmail.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]
[/stag_toggle]

The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Act (Act 654) and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655); these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989), while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955). Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States) further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006) on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain or process.

The fact that upon independence in 1957 the Malaysian constitution accorded separate jurisdiction for the state and federal authorities on land and water issues has given rise to various points of contention when dealing with water policy reform, particularly the role, power and ownership of water resources between the state and the federal governments. In conclusion, the problems observed in Malaysia’s water services industry reform are mainly with regard to legislation. In-depth analysis of how the SPAN Act and WSIA impact available legislation and how these legislations can create an integrated water resource management system that works on both Federal and State levels are crucial. It is thus fundamental for legal regimes for water resources to support the legal regimes for water services. Only then, will the Federal
government be able to take appropriate steps in restructuring the country’s water governance in its entirety.

Acknowledgement

The authors acknowledge the research grant provided by the Ministry of Education Malaysia under the Long Term Research Grant Scheme (LRGS) 203/PKT/6726002 and those who have took part and provided us with information for this study. The authors also thank the panel of reviewers who provided us with constructive comments in the preparation of this commentary.

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DOI number:10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.08

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Ehab A. Elsayed

Drainage Research Institute, National Water Research Center, El-Qanater El-Khairiya, Egypt.

Corresponding author: ehab7878@hotmail.com ; ehab78new@yahoo.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-square” url=”” size=”20px” new_window=”no”]

[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI) was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs) located along Mahmoudia Canal.

The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.07

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Prabhakaran T. Raghu a, Varghese Manaloor b, V. Arivudai Nambi a

a M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Biodiversity Department, Chennai, India
b University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Department of Social Sciences, Camrose, Canada

* Corresponding author: tr.prabha@mssrf.res.in [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]
[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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Abstract

In this paper, different aspects of development sustainability will be highlighted by stressing the fact that even the smartest drivers are necessarily characterized by the continuous uncertainty we all must live with. Different development drivers will be illustrated in the field of agriculture, nature and environment, all attempting to weigh the contradicting, even conflicting parameters of life and decay. Agricultural sustainability drivers will encompass human, cultural, social and political aspects together with components of metabolism, genetics, energy, environment and farm management. It will be concluded that each sustainability approach should be precisely documented using exact parameters and not unproven social or emotional attributes. Quantitative cost to benefit ratios will be proposed as sustainability indicators. In short, sustainability is an ideal state in the area of conflict between environmental change, evolution of life and thermodynamic laws. It cannot be defined as a stable state, but as a state of relative stability during a certain but limited period of time. Sustainability strongly depends on a reliable energy resource that, in thermodynamic terms, enables the preservation of order in an open (eco-) system at the expense of the order of the environment.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.06

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