DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.12

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Arshad Ali *, Asad Mahmood, Shahnila Gul
National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Correponding author: [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]


[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

This research looks at the effectiveness of microinsurance services during and after a disaster and at disaster management as an effective tool for community betterment. A detailed review has been done on available research and case studies. Unfortunately, underdeveloped countries suffer due to a lack of finances during and after a disaster. Developed countries are usually not ready for any disaster at government and public levels. A disaster affected country will also be keen for financial help from donor agencies and other counties. Microinsurance would be very helpful during any disaster to overcome the financial needs at the community level. Microinsurance is a practice that can share the financial liability with the affected population during a disaster. There is no trend in Pakistan for community based microinsurance for certain reasons, although there are very good examples available for review in the region. These include microinsurance services based on community microinsurance models such as SEWA (Gujarat), Weather-Index-based insurance (Ethiopia) and Crop insurance against typhoons (Philippine). These have played a vital role in disaster risk transfer during and after disasters. This study will identify the implementation and outcome of microinsurance in Pakistan during a disaster and understand how much beneficial microinsurance would be for the betterment and recovery of affective community on an urgent basis.[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.11

Photo credits: Professor Pua Bar (Kutiel)

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]
Shira Dickler a* , Meidad Kissinger a

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

*Correponding author:  [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”][/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

The prevailing global livestock industry relies heavily on natural capital and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). In recent years, nations have begun to take more of an active role in measuring their resource inputs and GHG outputs for various products. However, up until now, most nations have been recording data for production, focusing on processes within their geographical boundaries. Some recent studies have suggested the need to also embrace a consumption-based approach. It follows that in an increasingly globalized interconnected world, to be able to generate a sustainable food policy, a full systems approach should be embraced. The case of Israeli meat consumption presents an interesting opportunity for analysis, as the country does not have sufficient resources or the climatic conditions needed to produce enough food to support its population. Therefore, Israel, like a growing number of other countries that are dependent on external resources, relies on imports to meet demand, displacing the environmental impact of meat consumption to other countries. This research utilizes a multi-regional consumption perspective, aiming to measure the carbon and land footprints demanded by Israeli cattle and chicken meat consumption, following both domestic production and imports of inputs and products. The results of this research show that the “virtual land” required for producing meat for consumption in Israel is equivalent to 62% of the geographical area of the country. Moreover, almost 80% of meat consumption is provided by locally produced chicken products but the ecological impact of this source is inconsequential compared to the beef supply chain; beef imports comprise only 13% of meat consumption in Israel but are responsible for 71% of the carbon footprint and 83% of the land footprint. The sources of Israel’s meat supply are currently excluded from environmental impact assessments of Israeli processes. However, they constitute a significant fraction of the system’s natural capital usage, so they must be included in a comprehensive assessment of Israel’s consumption habits.  Only then can policy be created for a sustainable food system, and inter-regional sustainability be achieved.
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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.10

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Ajoy Kumar Mandal a*, Atanu Jana b, Abhijit Datta b, Priyangshu M. Sarma a, Banwari Lal a , Jayati Datta b

a The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India.

b Bengal Engineering and Science University, Sibpur, PO: Botanic Garden, Dist: Howrah, West Bengal, India.

* Corresponding author: [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”] ; [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”][/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste) carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008), by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India (GoI).[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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[5] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Soil At South Santhal CTF, ONGC, Mehsana Asset, India”. In Proceedings of 2007 Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Paper no. 109571, 2007.

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[38] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Remediation of Oily Sludge at Various Installations of ONGC: A Biotechnological Approach”, In Proceedings of Petrotech 2007: 7th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 753, 2007.

[39] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oily sludge at Panipat refinery, IOCL, India: A case study”, In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Hazardous Waste Management,Chania, Crete, Greece, 2008, Paper no. B2.4, 2008.

[40] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of tank bottom waste oily sludge at CPF Gandhar, India : a case study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2009: 8th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, 2009, Paper no. 657, 2009.

[41] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil at CTF Kalol, ONGC, Ahmedabad Asset, India”. In Proceedings of SECON 09:National Conference on Energy Resources of North East India, Guwahati, 2009, Paper no. S09.HSE.0004, 2009.

[42] Priyangshyu Manab Sarma et al., “Remediation of petroleum wastes and reclaimation of waste lands : A biotechnological approach”, In Proceedings of Brownfield Asia 2006 : International conference on remediation and management of contaminated land : Focus on Asia, Kualalampur, Malaysia, pp. 185 – 198, 2006.

[43] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Outstanding Catalyst Performance of PdAuNi Nanoparticles for the Anodic Reaction in an Alkaline Direct Ethanol (with Anion-Exchange Membrane) Fuel Cell”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 116, no. 49, pp. 25677–25688, 2012.

[44] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Significant role of surface activation on Pd enriched Pt nano catalysts in promoting the electrode kinetics of ethanol oxidation: Temperature effect, product analysis & theoretical computations”, Int. J Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 7789 – 7800, 2013.

[45] J. Datta, et al., “The Beneficial Role of The Co-metals Pd and Au in the Carbon Supported PtPdAu Catalyst Towards Promoting Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics in Alkaline Fuel Cells: Temperature Effect and Reaction Mechanism”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 115, no. 31, pp. 15324-15334, 2011.

[46] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Land At Dikom Site At Duliajan, Assam, India: A Field Case Study”, In Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008, Paper no. IPTC 12396, 2008.

[47] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Drill Muds At Bhavnagar Shorebase, India : A Field Case Study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2010: 9th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 20100515, 2010. [/stag_toggle]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.09

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Nabsiah Abdul Wahid a*, Zainal Ariffin Ahmad b, Rozita Arshad c

Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
b  College of Graduate Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia.
[stag_icon icon=”envelope” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]
c  College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
[stag_icon icon=”envelope” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

*Corresponding author: [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Act (Act 654) and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655); these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989), while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955). Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States) further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006) on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain or process.

The fact that upon independence in 1957 the Malaysian constitution accorded separate jurisdiction for the state and federal authorities on land and water issues has given rise to various points of contention when dealing with water policy reform, particularly the role, power and ownership of water resources between the state and the federal governments. In conclusion, the problems observed in Malaysia’s water services industry reform are mainly with regard to legislation. In-depth analysis of how the SPAN Act and WSIA impact available legislation and how these legislations can create an integrated water resource management system that works on both Federal and State levels are crucial. It is thus fundamental for legal regimes for water resources to support the legal regimes for water services. Only then, will the Federal
government be able to take appropriate steps in restructuring the country’s water governance in its entirety.


The authors acknowledge the research grant provided by the Ministry of Education Malaysia under the Long Term Research Grant Scheme (LRGS) 203/PKT/6726002 and those who have took part and provided us with information for this study. The authors also thank the panel of reviewers who provided us with constructive comments in the preparation of this commentary.

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DOI number:10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.08

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Ehab A. Elsayed

Drainage Research Institute, National Water Research Center, El-Qanater El-Khairiya, Egypt.

Corresponding author: ; [stag_icon icon=”envelope-square” url=”” size=”20px” new_window=”no”]


[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI) was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs) located along Mahmoudia Canal.

The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.


[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.07

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Prabhakaran T. Raghu a, Varghese Manaloor b, V. Arivudai Nambi a

a M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Biodiversity Department, Chennai, India
b University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Department of Social Sciences, Camrose, Canada

* Corresponding author: [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.


[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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In this paper, different aspects of development sustainability will be highlighted by stressing the fact that even the smartest drivers are necessarily characterized by the continuous uncertainty we all must live with. Different development drivers will be illustrated in the field of agriculture, nature and environment, all attempting to weigh the contradicting, even conflicting parameters of life and decay. Agricultural sustainability drivers will encompass human, cultural, social and political aspects together with components of metabolism, genetics, energy, environment and farm management. It will be concluded that each sustainability approach should be precisely documented using exact parameters and not unproven social or emotional attributes. Quantitative cost to benefit ratios will be proposed as sustainability indicators. In short, sustainability is an ideal state in the area of conflict between environmental change, evolution of life and thermodynamic laws. It cannot be defined as a stable state, but as a state of relative stability during a certain but limited period of time. Sustainability strongly depends on a reliable energy resource that, in thermodynamic terms, enables the preservation of order in an open (eco-) system at the expense of the order of the environment.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.06

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Multilayer Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with the backpropagation algorithm were used to estimate the decrease in relative saturated conductivity due to an increase in sodicity and salinity. Data from the literature on the relative saturated hydraulic conductivity measured using water having levels of sodicity and salinity in different types of semiarid soils were used. The clay content of these soils is predominantly montmorillonite. The input data consisted of clay percentage, cation exchange capacity, electrolyte concentration, and estimated soil exchangeable sodium percentage at equilibrium stage with the solution applied. The data was divided into three groups randomly to meet the three phases required for developing the ANN model (i. e. training, evaluation, and testing).The activation function selected was the TANSIG layer in the middle, while the exit function was the PURELIN layer. The comparisons between the experimental and predicted data on relative saturated hydraulic conductivity during training and testing phases showed good agreement. This was evident from the statistical indicators used for the evaluation process. For the training phase, the values of mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), the correlation coefficient (r) and the determination coefficient (R2) were 0.08, 0.13, 0.91, and 0.83, respectively. The performance of the ANN model was evaluated against a part of the data selected randomly form the whole set of data collected (i. e. data not used during the model testing phase). The resultant values for MAE and RMSE, r and R2 were 0.12, 0.16, 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. It should be noted that many factors were not considered, such as soil pH, type of clay, and organic matter, due to the limitations of the data available. Using these factors as input in ANNs might improve model predictions. However, the results suggested that the ANN model performs well in soils with very low levels of organic matter.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.05

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Egypt, as with other developing countries, faces a major energy security problem, which strongly impacts all national plans for economic development. A sound energy strategy is crucially needed, and should be based on two pillars: first, boosting the production of clean energy from various renewable and non-renewable sources, and second, managing and rationalizing energy demand, with related reforms. Some steps were taken by previous Egyptian governments regarding these two pillars. In February 2008, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy of Egypt put a target of 20% of electricity to come from renewable energy resources by 2020. In July 2012, the Ministerial Cabinet approved both the Egyptian Solar Plan targeting 3500 MW of solar energy by 2027, and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) to reduce energy consumption 5% during the period from 2012-2015 compared to the average consumption of the previous 5 years. We believe that these plans will not bring their expected fruits unless they are well orchestrated with other sectoral development plans in areas such as agriculture, transport, housing and services, amongst others. This paper aims to investigate the Egyptian NEEAP and assess whether the adopted national energy efficiency plan and the associated policies on all other development sectors adopted by the government have sound implications. We aim to find out whether the development policies with a focus on energy policy are set in an integrated or fragmented way.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.03

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