The great current controversy worldwide is: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), in such dispute are involved consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The controversial key topics related to genetically modified (GM) food are: risk of harm from GM food, labeled GM food, the role of government regulations, the effect of GM crops on the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of GM crops for farmers, including farmers in developing countries, the role of GM crops in feeding the growing world population, and GM crops as part of the industrial agriculture system.

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Why we found rare this day of celebration?

This day was first proposed in 1992 by the Government of Canada at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, and only in December 2008 the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the “World Oceans Day”, now it is celebrated on June 8th each year.

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This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v3i0.06

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