DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v5i0.01

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Naah John-Baptist Saabado Ngmaadaba* , Johannes Hamhaber

Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Cologne, Germany.

*Correponding author: jeanlebaptist@yahoo.co.uk [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

The dynamics of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology dissemination and utilization has taken center stage in recent years on a global scale, aiming to partly address prevailing rampant energy poverty situations particularly in developing countries. This paper evaluates a flagship electrification project called Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP). We purposively sampled 250 solar users in 65 villages across 6 districts in the Upper West region which has the country’s lowest level of electricity access and possibly the highest proportion of abject poverty among its inhabitants compared to the rest of the country. Based on the survey, it can be said that the overall impact assessment of the GEDAP-sponsored off-grid solar PV systems on the quality of life of the local beneficiaries was found to be positively marginal. Among all livelihood assets considered, social capital was markedly enhanced by the provision of modern energy services via isolated solar PV systems. Bottlenecks were identified, including limited system wattage capacity, slight dysfunction of some balance of components, higher interest rates, low technical know-how and inadequate monitoring, all of which are negatively affecting the sustainability of the project. Our findings also indicate that satisfaction derived from solar PV electricity supply among local solar customers differed for varied reasons as follows: moderately satisfied (43%), satisfied (52%), and dissatisfied (5%).  For a decisive enhancement of rural livelihoods, we strongly recommend up-scaling system wattage capacity and coverage to build up new or improve upon existing livelihood assets through diversification of the income sources of the local inhabitants.

[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

  1. Adams, W. M., ”The future of sustainability: Re-thinking environment and development in the twenty-first century”. Department of Geography, University of Cambridge,UK, 2006. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf (accessed on 17th August, 2011).
  2. Purohit, P., ”CO2 emissions mitigation potential of solar home systems under clean development mechanism in India”. Energy 34 1014–1023, 2009. Doi:1016/j.energy.2008.11.009.
  3. GREENPEACE, ”Decentralizing power: An energy revolution for the 21st century-Summary”. London, 2005. http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/media/reports/decentralising-power-an-energy-revolution-for-the-21st-century-summary (accessed on 16th September, 2014).
  4. Cooper, M., ”Social sustainability in Vancouver. Research paper F/62 on family network”. Canadian policy research Networks Inc. 600 – 250 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6M1, 2006. http://www.cprn.org (accessed on 10th July, 2012).
  5. UNDP & WHO, ”United Nations Development Program and World Health Organization. The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries. A review focusing on least developed countries and SSA”. Sustainable Energy Program Environment and Energy Group Report, 2009.
  6. Bastakoti, B. P., ”The electricity-livelihood  nexus:  some highlights  from  the  Andhikhola  Hydroelectric and  Rural  Electrification  Centre  (AHREC)”. Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume X No. 3, 2006. Doi:1016/S0973-0826(08)60541-4.
  7. Obeng, G.Y and H.-D. Evers, ”Impacts of public solar PV electrification on rural micro-enterprises: The case of Ghana”. Energy for Sustainable Development 14:223–231, 2010. Doi:1016/j.esd.2010.07.005.
  8. Akakpo, J., ”Rural Access: Options and challenges for connectivity and energy in Ghana”. A study carried out for the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) and the Ghana Information Network for Knowledge Sharing (GINKS), Consolidated Solutions Limited (CSL). Jointly published by GINKS and IICD, Accra, Ghana, 2008.
  9. A. and H. M. Kimber, ”Benefits from a renewable energy village electrification system”. Renewable Energy 34 362–368, 2008. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.011.
  10. Datta, S. K., Kapoor, S., Gupta, K. B., Chakrabarti, M., ”Study on NPV calculations for diversion of forest land for mining purposes”. Federation of Indian Mineral Industries, 2006.
  11. Naamwintome, B.A and E. Bagson, ”Youth in agriculture: Prospects and challenges in the Sissala area of Ghana”. Net Journal of Agricultural Science Vol. 1(2), pp. 60-68, 2013.
  12. Blench, R., ”Interim evaluation of UWADEP working paper: Background conditions in Upper West Region, Northern Ghana, 2005”. IFAD-office of evaluation. Cambridge, 2006.
  13. Ahiataku-Togobo, W., ”Access to sustainable energy in Ghana: Role of renewable energy as prerequisite for MDGs”. AREA Conference at the Rockyfeller Bellagio center, may 22-26, 2012, Italy, 2012.
  14. Ghana Statistical Service, “2010 population and housing census. Regional Analytical Report. Upper West Region.” Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, Ghana, 2013. http://statsghana.gov.gh/publications.html (accessed on 5th March, 2014).
  15. Scoones, I., ”Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis”. IDS Working Paper 72, 1998.
  16. DFID, ”Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets”. Department for International Development (UK), 1999-2005. London, 2000.
  17. Carney, D., M. Drinkwater, T. Rusinow, K. Neefjes, S. Wanamali, N. Singh., ”Livelihood approaches compared: A brief comparison of the livelihoods approaches of DFID, CARE, Oxfam, and UNDP”. Department of International Development (DFID), London. Chambers, R., Conway G. R., 1992. Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century. Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper 296. Sussex, U.K, 1999.
  18. Ashley, C., Carney, D., ”Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from early experience”. Department for International Development, London, UK, 1999.
  19. Wolfe, P., ”The implications of an increasingly decentralized energy system. Renewable Energy Association. Energy policy”, 2008.  Doi: 1016/j.enpol.2008.09.021
  20. Bailey, P., O. Chotimongkol, S. Isono, ”Demand Analysis and Optimization of Renewable Energy: Sustainable Rural Electrification of Mbanayili, Ghana”. MSc thesis, University of Michigan, USA, 2007.
  21. Bawakyillenuo S. ”Rural electrification: Issues of photovoltaic energy technology utilization”. PhD dissertation University of Hull, UK. 2007.
  22. Ackom, E.K., J. Ertel, E. Albrecht ”Technical and economic viability analysis of renewable energy technologies in Ghana”. PhD dissertation. The Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany, 2005.
  23. MoEP, ”National energy policy”. Ministry of Energy and Petroleum. Republic of Ghana. SonLife press, Accra, Ghana, 2010.
  24. Obeng, G. Y., H.-D., Evers, ”Solar PV rural electrification and poverty reduction: A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana”. ZEF working paper series 36. 2009. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17136 (accessed on 12th September, 2012).
  25. Palit, D., ”Solar energy programs for rural electrification: Experiences and lessons from South Asia”. Energy for Sustainable Development 17:270-279, 2013. Doi: 1016/j.esd.2013.01.002
  26. Palit, D. A. Chaurey, ”Off-grid rural electrification experiences from South Asia: Status and best practices”. Energy for Sustainable Development 15:266–276, 2011. Doi:1016/j.esd.2011.07.004.
  27. Lemaire, X., ”Off-grid electrification with solar home systems: The experiences of a fee-for-service concession in South Africa”. Energy for Sustainable Development 15:277-283, 2011. Doi: 1016/j.esd.2011.07.005.
  28. Kumar, M. M.V and R. Banerjee, ”Analysis of isolated power systems for village electrification”. Energy for Sustainable Development 14:213-222, 2010. Doi:1016/j.esd.2010.06.001.
  29. Kanudia, P. B. ”Off-grid solar power in rural India”. ETSAP meeting in Lisbon, Dec.10, 2012.
  30. Hankins, M, A. Saini, P Kirai, ”Target market analysis: Kenya’s solar energy market”. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 10785 Berlin, Germany, 2009.
  31. Chaurey, A., T. C. Kandpal,. ”Assessment and evaluation of PV based decentralized rural electrification: An overview”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 2266–2278, 2010. Doi:1016/j.rser.2010.04.005.
  32. Akpan, U. S., R. Salisu, Y.N. Udoakah. ”Electricity access in Nigeria: Viability of off-grid photovoltaic system”. A paper presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) African conference, Mauritius, September, 2013,
  33. REN21, ”Renewables 2014 Global Status Report”, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2014.
  34. MoEP, Ministry of Energy and Petroleum of Ghana. ”An exhibition of policies, projects and activities of MDAS and MMDAs. GEDAP”. Ghana policy fair. 26-30 April, 2011.
  35. Mfune, O. and E. K. Boon, ”Promoting renewable energy technologies for rural development in Africa: Experiences of Zambia”. Journal of Human Ecology 4(3):175-189, 2008.
  36. IEA, International Energy Agency, ”World Energy Outlook 2009”. OECD/IEA, Paris, 2009.
  37. Bawakyilenuo, S., ”Shifting the policy paradigm of solar photovoltaic and other renewable energy technologies supply in Ghana”. Policy Issue (PI), World Renewable Energy Congress, Linkoping, Sweden, 2011.
  38. AGECC, UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change, ”Energy for a Sustainable Future. Report and Recommendations”. New York, April, 2010.
  39. IEA, International Energy Agency, ”World Energy Outlook 2013”. OECD/IEA, Paris, 2013.
  40. EIA, Energy Information Administration. “The international Energy Outlook 2013”, USA, 2013 http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2013).pdf. (accessed on 9th December, 2013).
  41. Plastow, J. and Goldsmith, A. ”Investigating in Power and People”. A Global action Plan. Renewable Energy World, November-December 2001. James and James Publication: 47-59, 2001.
  42. Kumar, A., P. Mohanty, D. Palit, A. Chaurey, ”Approach for standardization of off-grid electrification projects”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13:1946–1956, 2009. Doi:1016/j.rser.2009.03.008.
  43. Wikipedia (2013, May 20). ”Upper West Region”. [Online]. Available http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_West_Region.

[/stag_toggle]

Download (PDF, 1.26MB)

Read More


Abstract

In this paper, different aspects of development sustainability will be highlighted by stressing the fact that even the smartest drivers are necessarily characterized by the continuous uncertainty we all must live with. Different development drivers will be illustrated in the field of agriculture, nature and environment, all attempting to weigh the contradicting, even conflicting parameters of life and decay. Agricultural sustainability drivers will encompass human, cultural, social and political aspects together with components of metabolism, genetics, energy, environment and farm management. It will be concluded that each sustainability approach should be precisely documented using exact parameters and not unproven social or emotional attributes. Quantitative cost to benefit ratios will be proposed as sustainability indicators. In short, sustainability is an ideal state in the area of conflict between environmental change, evolution of life and thermodynamic laws. It cannot be defined as a stable state, but as a state of relative stability during a certain but limited period of time. Sustainability strongly depends on a reliable energy resource that, in thermodynamic terms, enables the preservation of order in an open (eco-) system at the expense of the order of the environment.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.06

GDE Error: Error retrieving file - if necessary turn off error checking (404:Not Found)

Read More


Abstract

Different Energy options have been the driving force for the world economy with an evolution in types and sources. Decades ago choosing what energy option to use did not call for much debate as issues of sustainability, pressure on our environment, and our climate were not a major concern. However today, humans have to grapple with these current global challenges especially those exacerbated by our current sources of energy. The review article argues that science and sustainability thinking should be the basis for making the choice about what energy option is suitable for our era. It proposes that a more fruitful discourse should follow from a dialogue that puts in place the set of sustainability indicators and evaluating the suitability of the options for our era in that context. Focusing on two energy options; conventional and nuclear energy; the review compares them based on a set of sustainability indicators including, but not limited to, the environment, economics, ethics, expertise requirements, technical information, health, safety, uncertainty and government funding. In trying to answer the question Unsustainable conventional energy sources, is nuclear energy similar?, the review concludes that despite the demerits of nuclear energy, it is the solution to meet the world’s growing energy needs and to reverse the impending threat posed by climate change if research and development efforts in the sector are accelerated.

Read More