[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]
Ehab A. Elsayed
Drainage Research Institute, National Water Research Center, El-Qanater El-Khairiya, Egypt.
Corresponding author: email@example.com ; firstname.lastname@example.org [stag_icon icon=”envelope-square” url=”” size=”20px” new_window=”no”]
[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]
The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI) was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs) located along Mahmoudia Canal.
The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.
[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]
Abdel-Azim R. and Allam M.N., “Agricultural Drainage Water Reuse In Egypt: Strategic Issues And Mitigation Measures”, In : Hamdy A. (ed.), El Gamal F. (ed.), Lamaddalen a N. (ed.), Bogliotti C. (ed.), Gu ellou bi R. (ed.). Non-Conventional Water Use:WASAMED Project, Bari:CIHEAM/EU DG Research, pp. 105-117, 2005.
Abukila A. F., “Assessment Of Natural Self Restoration Of The Water Of Mahmoudia Canal, Western Part Of Nile Delta, Egypt”, Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 2012.
Ahmad Wagdy, “Progress In Water Resources Management: Egypt”, Proceedings of the 1st Technical Meeting of Muslim Water Researchers Cooperation (MUWAREC), Malaysia, December 2008.
Chapra, S.C.; Pelletier, and G.J.; Tao, H., “QUAL2K: A Modeling Framework for Simulating River and Stream Water Quality”, Version 2.11: Documentation and Users Manual; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University: Medford, OR, USA, 2008.
El Bouraie M. M., Motawea E.A., Mohamed G.G., and Yehia M. M., “Water Quality Of Rosetta Branch In Nile Delta, Egypt”, Suoseura 62(1), pp.31-37, Helsinki, 2011.
El-Gamal T., Meleha M.E., and Evelene S.Y., “The Effect Of Main Canal Characteristics On Irrigation Improvement Project”, J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., Vol. 34, pp. 1078-1079, 2009.
Hamdard M., “Fresh Water Swaps: Potential For Wastewater Reuse A Case Study Of Alexandria, Egypt”, UNESCO-IHE, 2010.
Hanfeng Y. E., Shuhai G.U.O., Fengmei L.I., and Gang L.I., “Water Quality Evaluation In Tidal River Reaches Of Liaohe River Estuary, China Using A Revised QUAL2K Model”, Chinese Geographical Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 301–311, 2013.
Horton, R. K., “An Index Number System For Rating Water Quality”, Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 300–306, 1965.
House, M. A., “A Water Quality Index For River Management”, Journal of the Institute of Water & Environmental Management, Vol.3, No. 4, pp. 336-344, 1989.
Hussein A. El Gammal and Hesham S. El Shazely, “Water Quality Management Scenarios In Rosetta River Nile Branch, Egypt”, Twelfth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC12, Alexandria, Egypt, 2008.
Kalburgi P.B., Shivayogimath C.B., and Purandara B.K., “Application Of QUAL2K For Water Quality Modeling Of River Ghataprabha (India)”, Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 4, No.12 (Serial No.37), Dec. 2010.
Moog D. B. and Jirka G. H., “Analysis of Reaeration Equations Using Mean Multiplicative Error”, Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 2, February 1998, pp. 104-110, (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1998)124:2(104) )
Noha Donia, “Rosetta Branch Waste Load Allocation Model”, Ninth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC9, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 2005.
NRMED, Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, “Rapid Assessment Study: Towards Integrated Planning Of Irrigation And Drainage In Egypt”, In Support Of The Integrated Irrigation Improvement And Management Project (IIIMP), FAO Corporate Document Repository, Final Report, Rome, 2005.
NWRC, National Water Research Center, “The operational drainage water reuse guidelines”, (NAWQAM), 2007.
Rashed, A. and El-Sayed, E. A. (2014). “Simulating Agricultural Drainage Water Reuse Using QUAL2K Model: Case Study of the Ismailia Canal Catchment Area, Egypt”, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000715 , 05014001.
Ruibin Zhang, Xin Qian, Xingcheng Yuan, Rui Ye, Bisheng Xia, and Yulei Wang, “ Simulation Of Water Environmental Capacity And Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K For Water Environmental Management”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 9, Issue 12, pp. 4504-4521, 2012.
Shiow-Mey Liou, Shang-Lien Lo, and Ching-Yao Hu, “Application Of Two-Stage Fuzzy Set Theory To River Quality Evaluation In Taiwan”, Water Research, Vol. 37, pp.1406–1416, 2003.
Vasudevan M., Nambi, I. M., and Suresh Kumar, G., “Application Of Qual2k For Assessing Waste Loading Scenario In River Yamuna”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Vol. II, Issue II, pp. 336-344, April-June, 2011.
Yen-Chang Chen, Hui-Chung Yeh, and Chiang Wei, “Estimation Of River Pollution Index In A Tidal Stream Using Kriging Analysis”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 9, Issue 9, pp. 3085-3100, 2012.
Yeuh-Bin Wang, Chen-Wuing Liu, Pei-Yu Liao, and Jin-Jing Lee, “Spatial Pattern Assessment Of River Water Quality: Implications Of Reducing The Number Of Monitoring Stations And Chemical Parameters”, Environ Monit Assess, Nov. 2013.
Egypt, as with other developing countries, faces a major energy security problem, which strongly impacts all national plans for economic development. A sound energy strategy is crucially needed, and should be based on two pillars: first, boosting the production of clean energy from various renewable and non-renewable sources, and second, managing and rationalizing energy demand, with related reforms. Some steps were taken by previous Egyptian governments regarding these two pillars. In February 2008, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy of Egypt put a target of 20% of electricity to come from renewable energy resources by 2020. In July 2012, the Ministerial Cabinet approved both the Egyptian Solar Plan targeting 3500 MW of solar energy by 2027, and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) to reduce energy consumption 5% during the period from 2012-2015 compared to the average consumption of the previous 5 years. We believe that these plans will not bring their expected fruits unless they are well orchestrated with other sectoral development plans in areas such as agriculture, transport, housing and services, amongst others. This paper aims to investigate the Egyptian NEEAP and assess whether the adopted national energy efficiency plan and the associated policies on all other development sectors adopted by the government have sound implications. We aim to find out whether the development policies with a focus on energy policy are set in an integrated or fragmented way.
DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.03