DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v5i0.01

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Naah John-Baptist Saabado Ngmaadaba* , Johannes Hamhaber

Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Cologne, Germany.

*Correponding author: jeanlebaptist@yahoo.co.uk [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”closed”]

The dynamics of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology dissemination and utilization has taken center stage in recent years on a global scale, aiming to partly address prevailing rampant energy poverty situations particularly in developing countries. This paper evaluates a flagship electrification project called Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP). We purposively sampled 250 solar users in 65 villages across 6 districts in the Upper West region which has the country’s lowest level of electricity access and possibly the highest proportion of abject poverty among its inhabitants compared to the rest of the country. Based on the survey, it can be said that the overall impact assessment of the GEDAP-sponsored off-grid solar PV systems on the quality of life of the local beneficiaries was found to be positively marginal. Among all livelihood assets considered, social capital was markedly enhanced by the provision of modern energy services via isolated solar PV systems. Bottlenecks were identified, including limited system wattage capacity, slight dysfunction of some balance of components, higher interest rates, low technical know-how and inadequate monitoring, all of which are negatively affecting the sustainability of the project. Our findings also indicate that satisfaction derived from solar PV electricity supply among local solar customers differed for varied reasons as follows: moderately satisfied (43%), satisfied (52%), and dissatisfied (5%).  For a decisive enhancement of rural livelihoods, we strongly recommend up-scaling system wattage capacity and coverage to build up new or improve upon existing livelihood assets through diversification of the income sources of the local inhabitants.

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[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.10

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Ajoy Kumar Mandal a*, Atanu Jana b, Abhijit Datta b, Priyangshu M. Sarma a, Banwari Lal a , Jayati Datta b

a The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India.

b Bengal Engineering and Science University, Sibpur, PO: Botanic Garden, Dist: Howrah, West Bengal, India.

* Corresponding author: akmandal@teri.res.in [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”] ; ajoy_mandal@hotmail.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”][/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste) carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008), by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India (GoI).[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”References” state=”closed”]

[1] L Yustle et al., 2000. “Characterization of bacterial strains able to grow on high molecular mass residues from crude oil processing”. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, vol. 32, pp. 69–75, 2000.

[2] Xueqing Zhu et al., “Guidelines for the bioremediation of marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands”, U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, USA, 2001.

[3] Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India, Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules Amendment 2000.

[4] M. Vidali, “Bioremediation – An Overview”, Pure Applied Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1163 – 1172, ©2001, IUPAC, 2001.

[5] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Soil At South Santhal CTF, ONGC, Mehsana Asset, India”. In Proceedings of 2007 Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Paper no. 109571, 2007.

[6] Nitu Sood & Banwari Lal, “Isolation of a novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons in acidic conditions”, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 90, pp. 1728–1736, 2009.

[7] Ouyang Wei et al., “Comparison of bio-augmentation and composting for remediation of oily sludge: A field scale study in China”, Process Biochemistry, vol. 40, pp. 3763 – 3768, 2005.

[8] J. R. Bragg et al.,“Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill”, Nature, vol. 368, pp. 413–418, 1994.

[9] R. C.Prince et al., “17α(H), 21β(H)-Hopane as a conserved internal marker for estimating the biodegradation of crude oil”, Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 28, pp. 142-145, 1994.

[10] C. B.Chikere et al., “Bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil polluted soil undergoing bioremediation”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 2535-2540, 2009.

[11] Sonal Bhatnagar and Reeta Kumari, “Bioremediation: A Sustainable Tool for Environmental Management – A Review”, Annual Review & Research in Biology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 974-993, 2013.

[12] A. J. Mearns et al., “Field-testing bioremediation treating agents: lessons from an experimental shoreline oil spill”, In Proceedings of 1997 International Oil Spill Conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, pp. 707-712, 1997.

[13] P U M Raghavan and M. Vivekanandan, “Bioremediation of oil-spilled sites through seeding of naturally adapted Pseudomonas putida”, International Biodeterioration& Biodegradation, vol. 44, pp. 29 – 32, 1999.

[14] Sanjeet Mishra et al., “Evaluation of Inoculum Addition To Stimulate In Situ Bioremediation of Oily-Sludge-Contaminated Soil”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp.1675–1681, 2001.

[15] Wuxing Liu et al., “Prepared bed bioremediation of oily sludge in an oil field in northern China”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, pp. 479-484, 2009.

[16] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., , “Bioremediation: A Sustainable Eco-friendly Solution for Environmental Pollution in Oil Industries”, Journal of Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5-23, 2011.

[17] Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Government of India. “Status of groundwater quality in India, Part – II”. Groundwater Quality Series: GWQS/10/2007-08, April 2008.

[18] M.W. Holdgate, “Environmental factors in the development of Antarctica”. In: F.O.Vicuiia (Editor), Antarctic Resources Policy Scientific, Legal and Political Issues. Cambridge University Press, pp – 77 – 101, 1983.

[19] G S Sodhi, Fundamental concept of Environmental Chemistry, Narosa Publishing House, pp. 323, 1993.

[20] World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Volume 1: Recommendations, WHO, Geneva, 2nd Edn., 1993.

[21] Anil K. Gupta, and Sreeja S Nair, “Ecosystem Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction”, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi, pp. 202, 2012.

[22] K S Parikh, “India development report” published in IGIDR 1999-2000, Oxford University press, 1999.

[23] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation: An Environment Friendly Sustainable Biotechnological Solution for Remediation Of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste”, ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2(Special Issue ICESR 2012), pp. 1 – 12, 2012.

[24] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Large Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste at Indian Oil Refineries: Case Studies”, International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. L – 114 – 128, 2012.

[25] D Bhattacharya et al., “Evaluation of genetic diversity among Pseudomonas citronellolis strains isolated from oily sludge contaminated sites”, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 1431–1441, March, 2003.

[26] Priyangshu Manab Sarma, et al., “Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons”, Can. J. Microbiol., vol. 50, pp.405–414, 2004.

[27] P M Sarma et al., “Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by a newly discovered enteric bacterium, Leclercia adecarboxylata”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 3163-3166, May, 2004.

[28] P M Sarma et al., “Degradation of pyrene by an enteric bacterium, Leclerciaa decarboxylata PS4040”, Biodegradation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp.59-69, Feb., 2010.

[29] B. Lal and S. Khanna, “Degradation of crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Alcaligenes odorans”, Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp.355-362, Oct., 1996.

[30] B. Lal and S.Khanna, “Mineralization of [14C] octacosane by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus”. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1225-1231, 1996.

[31] S. Mishra et al., “In situ bioremediation potential of an oily sludge degrading bacterial consortium”, Current Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp.328-335, Nov. 2001.

[32] Sanjeet Mishra et al., “Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm”, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 235, no. 2, pp. 323–331, June, 2004.

[33] G S Prasad et al., “Candida digboiensis sp. nov.a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oil field”. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 55, PP.633–638, 2005.

[34] N Sood et al., “Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6”, Environment Science Pollution Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp.603-10, 2009.

[35] S Krishnan et al., “Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two desulphurizing bacterial strains, Mycobacterium phlei SM120-1 and Mycobacterium phlei GTIS10”. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 483-489, May, 2006.

[36] S Krishnan et al., “Biodesulpharization of fuels; Breaking the barriers through Microbial Biotechnology”. All India Biotech Association News Letter, no. 8, pp.41-44, 2001.

[37] Meeta Lavania et al., “Biodegradation of asphalt by Garciaella petrolearia TERIG02 for viscosity reduction of heavy oil” Biodegradation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 15-24, 2012.

[38] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Remediation of Oily Sludge at Various Installations of ONGC: A Biotechnological Approach”, In Proceedings of Petrotech 2007: 7th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 753, 2007.

[39] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oily sludge at Panipat refinery, IOCL, India: A case study”, In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Hazardous Waste Management,Chania, Crete, Greece, 2008, Paper no. B2.4, 2008.

[40] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of tank bottom waste oily sludge at CPF Gandhar, India : a case study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2009: 8th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, 2009, Paper no. 657, 2009.

[41] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil at CTF Kalol, ONGC, Ahmedabad Asset, India”. In Proceedings of SECON 09:National Conference on Energy Resources of North East India, Guwahati, 2009, Paper no. S09.HSE.0004, 2009.

[42] Priyangshyu Manab Sarma et al., “Remediation of petroleum wastes and reclaimation of waste lands : A biotechnological approach”, In Proceedings of Brownfield Asia 2006 : International conference on remediation and management of contaminated land : Focus on Asia, Kualalampur, Malaysia, pp. 185 – 198, 2006.

[43] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Outstanding Catalyst Performance of PdAuNi Nanoparticles for the Anodic Reaction in an Alkaline Direct Ethanol (with Anion-Exchange Membrane) Fuel Cell”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 116, no. 49, pp. 25677–25688, 2012.

[44] Abhijit Dutta and Jayati Datta, “Significant role of surface activation on Pd enriched Pt nano catalysts in promoting the electrode kinetics of ethanol oxidation: Temperature effect, product analysis & theoretical computations”, Int. J Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 7789 – 7800, 2013.

[45] J. Datta, et al., “The Beneficial Role of The Co-metals Pd and Au in the Carbon Supported PtPdAu Catalyst Towards Promoting Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics in Alkaline Fuel Cells: Temperature Effect and Reaction Mechanism”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C., vol. 115, no. 31, pp. 15324-15334, 2011.

[46] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Land At Dikom Site At Duliajan, Assam, India: A Field Case Study”, In Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2008, Paper no. IPTC 12396, 2008.

[47] Ajoy Kumar Mandal et al., “Bioremediation Of Oil Contaminated Drill Muds At Bhavnagar Shorebase, India : A Field Case Study”. In Proceedings of Petrotech 2010: 9th International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, Paper no. 20100515, 2010. [/stag_toggle]

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DOI number:10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.08

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Authors” state=”open”]

Ehab A. Elsayed

Drainage Research Institute, National Water Research Center, El-Qanater El-Khairiya, Egypt.

Corresponding author: ehab7878@hotmail.com ; ehab78new@yahoo.com [stag_icon icon=”envelope-square” url=”” size=”20px” new_window=”no”]

[/stag_toggle]

[stag_toggle style=”stroke” title=”Abstract” state=”open”]

The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI) was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs) located along Mahmoudia Canal.

The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

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Yen-Chang Chen, Hui-Chung Yeh, and Chiang Wei, “Estimation Of River Pollution Index In A Tidal Stream Using Kriging Analysis”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 9, Issue 9, pp. 3085-3100, 2012.

Yeuh-Bin Wang, Chen-Wuing Liu, Pei-Yu Liao, and Jin-Jing Lee, “Spatial Pattern Assessment Of River Water Quality: Implications Of Reducing The Number Of Monitoring Stations And Chemical Parameters”, Environ Monit Assess, Nov. 2013.

http://www.wunderground.com/weather-forecast/EG/Alexandria_International.html?

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DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.07

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Prabhakaran T. Raghu a, Varghese Manaloor b, V. Arivudai Nambi a

a M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Biodiversity Department, Chennai, India
b University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Department of Social Sciences, Camrose, Canada

* Corresponding author: tr.prabha@mssrf.res.in [stag_icon icon=”envelope-o” url=”” size=”15px” new_window=”no”]
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Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

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Abstract

Egypt, as with other developing countries, faces a major energy security problem, which strongly impacts all national plans for economic development. A sound energy strategy is crucially needed, and should be based on two pillars: first, boosting the production of clean energy from various renewable and non-renewable sources, and second, managing and rationalizing energy demand, with related reforms. Some steps were taken by previous Egyptian governments regarding these two pillars. In February 2008, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy of Egypt put a target of 20% of electricity to come from renewable energy resources by 2020. In July 2012, the Ministerial Cabinet approved both the Egyptian Solar Plan targeting 3500 MW of solar energy by 2027, and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) to reduce energy consumption 5% during the period from 2012-2015 compared to the average consumption of the previous 5 years. We believe that these plans will not bring their expected fruits unless they are well orchestrated with other sectoral development plans in areas such as agriculture, transport, housing and services, amongst others. This paper aims to investigate the Egyptian NEEAP and assess whether the adopted national energy efficiency plan and the associated policies on all other development sectors adopted by the government have sound implications. We aim to find out whether the development policies with a focus on energy policy are set in an integrated or fragmented way.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v4i0.03

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Abstract

Soil is an important natural resource which when effectively managed, could increase the livelihoods of households in sedentary agricultural communities. Soil erosion is however an emerging challenge as a cause of environmental degradation and this paper sought to ascertain the nature of soil erosion on maize farms, the effects of soil erosion on maize crop farmers and the effectiveness of local control measures on output levels and the livelihoods of the farmers. A cross-section of the community was taken and participants were selected non-probabilistically by snow-balling for questionnaire administration and focus group discussions. The study revealed that the local farmers perceived soil erosion as the wearing away of the top soil and nutrients, under the influence of running water during rainy periods and the slope of the land. The major effects of soil erosion were found to be the loss of fertile soils, reduction in the cultivable land area, the reduction in the crop yield and a fall in the living standards of farmers’ households. The findings also indicated that some of the adaptive strategies to reduce the effects of soil erosion include shifting cultivation, ridging across slopes, planting on raised mounds and avoidance of deep ploughing. It was further revealed that farmers who successfully applied the traditional methods improved upon their output levels per land area and the standards of living of their families It was recommended that modern agricultural extension services were needed, not to replace, but to complement the local knowledge systems in order to ensure sustainability.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v3i0.10

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Abstract

The study essentially aims to assess the public-private partnership (PPP) as a thriving strategy in natural resources maintenance that largely is dependent on stakeholders’ participation forest bio-diversity and green management. In an age of climate change and global warming, as a threat due to unavoidable consequences of human activities, natural resource management is now one of the prime concern around the developed and developing countries in terms of creating responsible attitude towards green maintenance. Governments have, by and large, agreed on sustainable employ and conservation of forests in several international forums during the last three decades. In fact, public sector has already proved its inefficiency and ineffective mode to protect natural resources due to lack of skills, human and material resources, and rampant corruption which have encouraged the government to introduce the strategy of PPP. The study was conducted at Lawachhara national park through a sample survey by employing stratified sampling as well as some other tools of data collection incorporating both quantitative and qualitative approaches. It is evident in the study that most of the respondents commonly believe PPP may change the existing ineffective and inefficient mode of natural resources management. Another important finding included that challenges are not possible to overcome unless the active participation of the stakeholders are possible to ensure.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v3i0.08

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Abstract

This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v3i0.06

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Abstract

In Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam, drought during the dry season affected negatively on rice production. High and uneven rainfall distribution cause flooding in the basin during wet season and cause severe agricultural drought during dry season.

This study aimed to point out a higher water productive and economically efficient rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the region. Based on available secondary data, water productivity is calculated for different water saving rice production methods, according to Pereira, et al, (2012)’s irrigation water productivity and total productivity equations. The profit of technological change is calculated by partial budget analysis of rice production in that area and a sensitivity analysis supports to point out which input factor is sensitive to farmer’s benefit. Farmer’s psychological and social beliefs are used to create fuzzy logic based decision making model. Although water productivities (ranging 0.441 kg/m3/ha   to   0.504 kg/m3/ha) are ranked as the second after System of Rice Intensification, we demonstrated that Alternate Wetting and Drying method is a recommendable method to the farmer after considering economic profitability and technical simplicity. The System of Rice Intensification method also could be a suitable method to adopt because this method is the highest water productive method (Water Productivities are ranging from 0.77 kg/m3/ha   to 1.02 kg/m3/ha) coupled with highest yield of rice, subject to certain ecosystem services and payment policies should be developed to subsidize the reduced benefit resulting from this method.

DOI number: 10.5027/jnrd.v3i0.05

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